Feldspars - Used in manufacture of glass, ceramics and enamels. Includes orthoclase, microcline, and albite (member of the plagioclase series). Gemstones - The most valuable total gemstone production is diamond; corundum varieties, ruby and sapphire; beryl varieties emerald, aquamarine, and kunzite.
Gravity concentration has been historically the most important way of extracting the native metal using pans or washing tables. Amalgamation with mercury was used to enhance recovery, often by adding it directly to the riffle tables, and mercury is still widely used in small diggings across the world.
Mineral processing: Mineral processing, art of treating crude ores and mineral products in order to separate the valuable minerals from the waste rock, or gangue. It is the first process that most ores undergo after mining in order to provide a more concentrated material for the procedures of extractive metallurgy.
Extractive metallurgy is a branch of metallurgical engineering wherein process and methods of extraction of metals from their natural mineral deposits are studied. The field is a materials science, covering all aspects of the types of ore, washing, concentration, separation, chemical processes and extraction of pure metal and their alloying to suit various applications, sometimes for direct ...
Demonstrated reserves — A collective term for the sum of coal in both measured and indicated resources and reserves. Deposit — Mineral deposit or ore deposit is used to designate a natural occurrence of a useful mineral, or an ore, in sufficient extent and degree of concentration to invite exploitation.